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Dr. and Professor

Don't use these in writing before people's names, as a rule. Not all faculty members hold a doctoral degree, and not all hold the rank of full professor. Instead, use the styles below:

Jane Smith, Ph.D., biology

Jane Smith, biology faculty      Jane Smith (biology)

To authoritatively confirm a faculty member's official title and degree(s), contact that faculty member directly, or Cathy Thiele, assistant to the provost and academic dean. (The GO site [people tab] is a handy reference for current faculty job titles, but occasionally a posted title is out of date.)

Formal College communications occasionally use Dr. before a person's name—particularly when referring to speakers visiting the campus. We also occasionally use "Professor" (never "Prof.") as a courtesy title before the name of an established faculty member who does not have a Ph.D.

Our goal is to be courteous and appropriate, and these guidelines are flexible. They apply to the College's more formal written communications. They don't apply to the many forms of less formal writing that occur in the course of College life—departmental newsletters, on-campus posters, et al. When speaking, many of us routinely use "Dr." and "Professor" as titles, and these guidelines are not intended to criticize this.

First and second references

In a formal first reference to a faculty or staff member, use the person's formal first name and last name followed by degree (if applicable) and lowercased job title. If the individual routinely uses his or her middle name, include it. If the individual is widely known by a shortened name or nickname, include it in parentheses.

Margaret DeWeese-Boyd, Ph.D., associate professor of social work

If the faculty member holds an endowed chair, include and capitalize all honorifics.

Bruce Herman, M.F.A., Lothlórien Distinguished Chair of Visual Arts

In formal and informational College communications, use the person's last name only in references that follow. However, it's fine to use first names when that style better suits the tone of a feature article.

Spelling out and abbreviating academic degrees

When writing about one of the five degrees the College grants, spell out the name of the degree on first reference and use the abbreviation thereafter. Spell, space and abbreviate like this:

Bachelor of Arts / B.A.     Bachelor of Music / B.M.      Bachelor of Science / B.S.

Master of Education / M.Ed.      Master of Music Education / M.M.E.

In general reference to a type of degree, lowercase the name/level of the degree, and in some cases, use the possessive (not plural) form.

doctorate      master's degree      bachelor's degree

In a sentence that mentions a degree earned by an individual, spell out and lowercase the name of the degree on first reference; abbreviate it thereafter.

Dr. DeWeese-Boyd earned a doctorate in political science from the University of Missouri–St. Louis, and a master's degree in social work at Washington University. Her M.S.W. focused on social and economic development.


Some publications omit periods from the abbreviations of academic degrees. It is Gordon College style to include periods.

Capitalize the first letter of the abbreviation for each word the abbreviation represents, and follow each with a period. Don't space between them. Common abbreviations appear below; find others on the Internet, and adjust the style to match the guidelines above.









Emeritus versus retired

Refer to retired faculty in one of two ways. Sequence the words as shown below; do not capitalize or italicize.

Niles Logue, retired professor of economics and business
Russell Bishop, professor emeritus of history and Stephen Phillips Chair of History

Emeritus is the masculine form, emerita is the feminine form, and emeriti is the plural form of an official honorific. At Gordon the trustees confer these titles on faculty members who retire after 10 or more years of service at Gordon College. This occurs one year after the individual retires. A list of professors emeriti appears near the end of the academic catalog as the last subsection of the list of faculty; use the boldfaced Latin words above only in reference to individuals listed there.

Always refer to former members of the board of trustees as emeritus, emerita or emeriti.

James H. Roberts '66B, trustee emeritus


Capitalize and spell out in their entirety Gordon College job titles that precede names. If you wish to make an exception to the rule of thumb above and use "Professor" before a faculty member's name, spell it out, and omit the name of the academic department.

President D. Michael Lindsay

Vice President for Marketing and Strategic Communications Rick Sweeney

Professor Elaine Phillips

Lowercase and spell out job titles that follow names or stand alone.

D. Michael Lindsay, president of Gordon College

Rick Sweeney, vice president for marketing and strategic communications

Elaine Phillips, professor of biblical studies

An admissions counselor will present an overview of the application process.

Lowercase words that identify jobs, but are not official job titles.

groundskeeper      member of the design staff      librarian      lecturer    


Use a person's full name on first reference. Thereafter, in formal and informational College communications use the last name only. However, it's fine to use first names when that style better suits the tone of a feature article.


Use the style above, and on first reference, follow the name with the person's abbreviated class year, spaced, punctuated and abbreviated as shown below. For a Barrington alumnus, follow the year with a capital B. To refer to an individual who spent just one year at Gordon or Barrington, follow the name with an abbreviation of that academic year, and precede it with a lowercase x.

On this web page, the apostrophe before the class year appears as a "straight quote," but for other media type an apostrophe that is a "smart quote" —a curved single closing quotation mark that points to the left.

If an alumna's last name is different than it was at the time she attended Gordon, use the style shown below: position the class year after the person's "Gordon era last name" and then follow it with the last name she uses now. If a couple's names appear together in sequence, put parentheses around the wife's Gordon-era last name to make it clear this is not the name she uses at present as her surname; place their common last name after the husband's name only.

For Jessica Hansmeier '07, serving and working are wrapped in one package. Hansmeier moved to Palestine in August without a return ticket.


Odell Grooms '78B

Ruth-Marie Bratt x'49 Goff

Sasha (Massand) '01 and Dan Moen '04

Exception: In STILLPOINTAlumni Notes and in some Alumni Office communications, use first names on second/subsequent reference.


Daughter Hannah Charin to Sasha (Massand) '01 and Dan Moen '04, November 8, 2011. Dan is an active duty chaplain serving at Fort Drum, NY in the 10th Mountain Division.

When an alumnus also is the parent of a Gordon student (or more recent alumnus), add a capital P and the son or daughter's class year, in this format: 


Conventions for how to refer to a member of the clergy differ among denominations. If written communication from the individual is on hand or can be viewed online, let that be your guide. Consult on-campus sponsors about the correct title to use when writing about a member of the clergy who will be participating in a campus event.

Some denominations still use phrases such as the Most Reverend in clerical titles. On this point it is the College's policy to err on the side of respectfulness. Use the when the honorific is spelled out and the individual's full name is used; with abbreviations, or on second reference with the person's last name only,  it is not necessary. Consult the Chicago Manual of Style 8.29, 15.18, and 15.22 for additional style points regarding abbreviation, capitalization and word sequence.

Abbreviate some clergy titles before names; spell others out.

Rev.      Dr.      Pastor      Rabbi      Sister      Father 


The rules above apply. Capitalize Coach or Assistant Coach before a name (and any other major words in the coach's official job title if you wish to state it in full). Lowercase them when they follow a name. On subsequent references, use the person's last name only in College communications for a broad audience. Never refer to a person just as "Coach," except in a direct quotation. As a rule, Gordon communications do not include degrees after coaches' names.

Coach Peter Amadon      Peter Amadon, tennis coach       Amadon

Exception: In Gordon Athletics communications, second references may include the title.

Jr., Sr., III, IV

Don't use a comma between a name and Jr., Sr., III, and so on.

Mr., Ms. and other personal titles

In some formal College communications, it is appropriate to use a title before an individual's last name on second and subsequent references. Use abbreviations: Mr., Ms., Mrs., Miss, Dr., Rev.

Ms. works for married and unmarried women. Some women prefer it; if possible, ask. If it’s not feasible to inquire about a woman’s preference, use Ms. It is the safest term to use when marital status is unknown (in the same way Mr. is used).


Under construction. 

Types of Restaurant Jobs and Titles

Restaurants are important employers, especially for young people just beginning their careers, and can be major economic drivers in areas dependent on tourism. While restaurants typically hire large numbers of entry-level workers, these are not, for the most part, unskilled jobs. Customer service skills honed in the front of the house are transferable to most other industries, and wait staff in high-end restaurants can often earn very good money in tips.

And some restaurants hire for a very wide variety of positions, from highly trained chefs to administrative staff.

You can use a list such as this one to get a sense of what types of jobs exist in a given industry and what your options as an employee might be. And since the same position can go by different titles in different businesses, you can also use the list to see if there are alternate titles for your position that you might prefer. For example, would you rather be a waitress/waiter, or a server? If you have a strong opinion, speak to your manager - you might be able to get your job title changed.

Types of Restaurant Jobs

The type of restaurant influences what jobs are available. A large fast-food or casual-dining chain will offer administrative, human resources, management, and marketing positions, whereas in a small cafe or fine dining establishment, these duties are more likely to fall to the general manager, the proprietor, or even the chef.

In general, the work in restaurants is divided into back-of-the-house and front-of-the-house positions. In large chains, there is also usually a corporate location where the upper management and administration will take place.

Back-of-the-House Jobs

Back-of-the-house positions are those that pertain to the preparation of food, as well as the dishwashing staff.

Small restaurants might only have a single chef or cook. Larger places might have an entire food preparation team, including titles like chef, sous chef, prep cook, line cook, and baker, plus a kitchen manager responsible for training, inventory, and other supervisory and administrative duties.

In chain restaurant locations, the general manager will have ultimate responsibility for both the front and the back of the house, but this role usually has no direct equivalent in proprietary restaurants. 

Front-of-the House Jobs

Front-of-the-house positions are those that deal directly with the public. These titles may include host or hostess (or maître d’, in more upscale restaurants), server (or waiter/waitress), busser (or busboy/busgirl, or back waiter), runner, and bartender. Some restaurants have specialized roles: someone who advises diners on wine choices is a sommelier, and the manager of the cheese selection, both advising dining and supervising proper storage, is the maître d’ fromage.

Fast-food restaurants have cashiers, and drive-through operators. There may be additional supportive or managerial positions, depending on the size and complexity of the restaurant, such as shift manager, floor manager, or table captain.

 The responsibilities of all these positions can vary from one restaurant to another, depending on the structure of the business.

Management Jobs

In regional or national restaurant chains, there will be an off-site corporate office which houses the upper management and their related support staff, including administrative assistants, office managers, IT specialists, and cleaning crew members. Often, there will be separate administrative, communications, human resources, research and development, and marketing divisions. These positions are similar to those in the corporate office of any large company, in any industry.

The corporate office is responsible for matters that involve the entire company, or entire regional divisions within the company, such as determining marketing strategy, defining the company’s brand, and developing and enforcing company policy.

List of Restaurant Job Titles

  • Apprentice Bartender
  • Area Director
  • Assistant Chef
  • Assistant General Manager
  • Assistant Kitchen Manager
  • Associate Creative Director
  • Baker
  • Bakery-Cafe Associate
  • Barback
  • Barista
  • Bar Manager
  • Bartender
  • Brand Manager
  • Bus Person
  • Cashier
  • Casual Restaurant Manager
  • Chef
  • Chef Manager
  • Coffee Tasting Room Assistant
  • Communications Manager
  • Cook
  • Culinary Services Supervisor
  • Culinary Trainee
  • Dessert Finisher
  • Digital Marketing Manager
  • Dining Room Manager
  • Director of Human Resources
  • Dishwasher
  • District Manager
  • Espresso Beverage Maker
  • Executive Chef
  • Expeditor
  • Field Recruiting Manager
  • Fine Dining Restaurant Manager
  • Food Runner
  • Front Manager
  • Grill Cook
  • Hibachi Chef
  • Host
  • Human Resources Manager
  • Inventory Analyst
  • Kitchen Manager
  • Kitchen Worker
  • Lead Cook
  • Line Cook
  • Manager, Research and Development
  • National Training Manager
  • Operations Analyst
  • Pantry Worker
  • Prep Cook
  • Product Manager
  • Regional Brand Development Manager
  • Regional Facilities Manager
  • Regional Manager
  • Regional Operations Specialist
  • Restaurant General Manager
  • Restaurant Manager
  • Server
  • Shift Supervisor
  • Sous Chef
  • Steward

More About Restaurant Jobs:Restaurant Skills List

Lists of Job Titles
More information on job titles and a list of job titles for a variety of occupations.